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Gofteman-e Naslha Language Center

Gofteman-e Naslha Language Center
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Adverbial phrases of frequency, time and place

Use:
An adverbial phrase is a group of words which always go together. they describe where, when or how often something happens.

Adverbial phrases of frequency describe how often something happens.

every morning, every afternoon
every day – daily
every week – weekly
every month – monthly
every year – annually

every Sunday – on Sundays – on Sunday afternoons

once a day
twice a day
three / four / five times a day

all the time

Form:
1) Adverbs of frequency often go in present simple sentences.
I have toast for breakfast every day.
We visit our grandparents twice a month.

2) Note that ‘on Saturday’ refers to one day. ‘On Saturdays’ means ‘every Saturday’.

Common mistakes
1)            Some students write adverbs of frequency in the wrong place.
                We every day go the park.                           =>                           We go to the park every day.

2)            Some students use the plural form with every.
                John goes swimming every days.              =>                           John goes swimming every day.

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Use:
Use adverbs and adverbial phrases of time to talk about when you do something.

Adverbs of time include:
today, tomorrow, tonight, yesterday, tomorrow, nowadays
now, first of all, beforehand
soon, afterwards, later, next, then

Form:
1) Adverbs of frequency usually go at the beginning or the end of a sentence or clause.
Tomorrow, I’m going to the beach.
I’m going to the beach tomorrow.

First of all, we had a drink at a café.
We had a drink at a café first of all.

I’m going to the supermarket, and afterwards I’m going to the library.
I’m going to the supermarket, and I’m going to the library afterwards.

2) It is more common to use then at the beginning of a sentence or clause.
Then we arrived at the castle.
I’m going to finish my work and then I’m going to have a drink.

It is more common to use soon and now at the end of a sentence.
We’re going on holiday soon.
I’m going home now.

Common mistakes
1)            Don’t use an adverb of time between the subject and the object of a sentence.
I went yesterday to the zoo.       =>           I went to the zoo yesterday. / Yesterday I went to the zoo.
I’m going now to the bank.          =>           I’m going to the bank now.         

2)            You must use a noun after After and Before. Otherwise, use afterwards or beforehand.
I’ll be late to class tomorrow. I’m going to the doctors before.  =>             I’ll be late to class tomorrow. I’m going to the doctors beforehand.

I’m going to my English class and I’m going to the bar after.          =>           I’m going to my English class and I’m going to the bar afterwards. 
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Use:
Use adverbs and adverbial phrases of place to talk about where something happens.

Adverbs of place include:
outside, inside, indoors, upstairs, downstairs
(over) here, (over) there
abroad, overseas

Form:
1) Adverbs of frequency usually go after a verb.
She lives abroad.
Let’s go indoors.

2) Adverbs of frequency can also go after the object of the sentence.
Rachel works in the office upstairs.
Your bag is on the table over there.

Adverbs - describing verbs

Use:
Adverbs can be used to describe verbs. They describe HOW you do something.
Examples: She walks quickly; He sings nicely.

Form:
1) You can make many adverbs by adding –ly to an adjective.
slow -> slowly; loud -> loudly
If an adjective ends in ‘y’, change it to an ‘i’.
heavy -> heavily; funny -> funnily
Add ‘ally’ to adjectives ending in ‘ic’.
Physical -> physically; energetic -> energetically

2) Some adverbs are irregular, and do not end in ly.  These include:
good -> well She dances well.
hard -> hard He works hard.
fast -> fast He runs fast.
late -> late He arrives late.

3a) Usually, the adverb goes after the verb it describes.
She talks quietly NOT She quietly talks.
He runs fast. NOT He fast runs.

3b) If the verb has a direct object WITHOUT A PREPOSITION the adverb should go after the object.
You sang that song nicely. NOT You sang nicely that song.
He did the job well. NOT He did well the job.

3c) If the verb is followed by a preposition and an object, you can put the adverb in different places.
He quickly walked to the shop.  
He walked quickly to the shop.
He walked to the shop quickly.

4) Adverbs are NOT used to describe the following verbs. These verbs use adjectives.
Be I am quiet.  NOT I am quietly.
Seem It seems strange. NOT It seems strangely.
Look That looks nice. NOT That looks nicely.
Smell That smells good. NOT That smells well.
Sound That sounds great. NOT That sounds greatly.
Feel That feels funny. NOT That feels funnily.

5) Some words end in ‘ly’ but they are not adverbs. Friendly is an example. Friendly is an adjective. We can say ‘She is friendly’ but not ‘She talks friendly’. There is no adverb for friendly, but we can say ‘She talks in a friendly way’. Elderly and lonely are also adjectives, not adverbs. Kindly and early are adjectives and adverbs.

Definite and indefinite articles

Use:
1) Use a before a singular noun.
   I've got a brother and a sister.
Use an if the noun begins with a vowel.
   I've got an aunt in Texas.

2) Use plural nouns or uncountable nouns to talk about things in general. Don't use an article here.


I like cats.
Dolphins are very intelligent.
Crime is increasing.

3) Use the to talk about one particular thing, or a particular group of things.
Books are interesting. The book on the table is interesting.
Children are noisy. The children in this class are noisy.

4) Use a to introduce a new thing or person. Use the when you already know this person or thing.
There is a restaurant near my house. The restaurant serves good food.

5) Use the when there is only one of these things.
    The moon is very big tonight.
My dad is the only doctor in our village.
Joe is the best student in the class.

6) Use the when there are many things, but it is clear which one you mean.
   Let's go to the pub! We need to go to the supermarket.

7) Most 'general' nouns do not use an article.
Life is not the same as it used to be NOT: The life…

Health is important to everyone. NOT: The health…

We're worried about pollution. NOT: The pollution…


 

But some general nouns use the:

the environment People are increasingly worried about the environment.
the weather What's the weather like today?
the countryside I love walking in the countryside.
the sea / ocean I'd love to live near the sea.
the radio There's an interesting programme on the radio.
the theatre / cinema We went to the theatre last night.
the economy The economy is affecting everyone.

Common mistakes:

1) Some students use the when they talk about things in general.
I love the romantic films! => I love romantic films!


 

2) Some students use singular nouns without a or the.
I want book about the weather. => I want a book about the weather.

3) Some students use the when they talk about things in general.
I want the book about the weather. => I want a book about the weather.

Gerunds and Infinitives

Use:      
1) A gerund is a verb in its –ing form, used as a noun.
                For example:     eating, going, seeing

Gerunds are used:
                a) As the subject of a sentence.
                Smoking is bad for you.
               
b) After some verbs, such as: like, hate, enjoy, quit, suggest, dislike, deny
                I like cooking. I enjoy fishing.
A good learner’s dictionary will tell you whether a verb is followed by a gerund or not.  
               
c) After prepositions.
                I’m interested in buying a computer. I’m scared of walking alone in the dark.

 

2) The infinitive form of the verb is the original verb. It can be with or without ‘to’.
                For example:     (to) eat, (to) go, (to) see.

The infinitive form is used:
                a) After some verbs, such as; agree, arrange, ask, promise, decide, afford
                I agreed to do the work. I arranged to see the doctor, They decided to get married.
A good learner’s dictionary will tell you whether a verb is followed by an infinitive or not.
               
b) To show the reason why you did something.
Tony went to the post office to pay a bill.             

c) After adjectives.
I was surprised to see Erica. I’m pleased to meet you.

3 a) Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or infinitive with NO CHANGE in meaning:
                For example: start, begin, hate, like, prefer, continue
                She started to cry = She started crying.
                I hate watching horror films = I hate to watch horror films.
 b) Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or a infinitive, but there is a change in meaning.
                For example: try, remember, stop
                I tried to get into the house. (Getting into the house is your goal or objective).
                I tried climbing through the window. (Climbing through the window is one thing you tried in order to obtain your final objective.)               

                I stopped cleaning the windows. (I was cleaning the windows and then I stopped).
                I stopped to clean the windows. (I was driving, and I stopped driving in order to clean the windows).
                I remembered to lock the door. (I remembered, and after that I locked the door).
                I remember locking the door. (I remember (now) that I locked the door (in the past)).

 

Can / Could


Use:
1)            Use can / can’t to talk about your abilities now.
I can speak English.        I can’t speak German.

               Use could / couldn’t to talk about abilities in the past.
I could speak French when I was a child, but I can’t now.
I couldn’t speak English when I was a child, but I can’t now.

2)            Use can and could to make requests.  Could is more polite.
               Can you cook this evening please?          
               Could you pass me the salt?

               Use can to reply to requests.
               Can I sit here?                                                    =>           Yes, you can.      Sorry, you can’t.
               Can you cook this evening please?           =>           Yes, I can.            Sorry, I can’t.

               DON’T use could in replies.
               Could you lend me some money?
               Yes, I could.                                                        =>           Yes, sure!             Sorry, I can’t.                    

Form:
1)            Can and could are the same for all persons.
                I                               can/could            speak English
                you                        can/could            speak English
he / she / it         can/could            speak English
we                          can/could            speak English
they                       can/could            speak English.
               
2)            The negative form of can is cannot, or can’t. The negative form of could is couldn’t.

3)            There is always a verb after can and could, and the verb is always in the infinitive form (without to).
                Sally can help you.                           NOT                       Sally can helps you. / Sally can to help you.

4)            Make questions by inverting can and the subject.
                I can see you this afternoon.       =>                           Can I see you this afternoon?
                You could help me.                          =>                           Could you help me?       
               
5)            Use can/can’t and could/couldn’t in short answers.
                Can your brother swim?                               =>                           Yes, he can.  No, he can’t.           
                Could you do the test?                   =>                           Yes, I could.  No, I couldn’t.

Common mistakes:
1)            Some students make questions incorrectly.
                You can speak English?                 =>                           Can you speak English?
                I could sit here?                                 =>                           Could I sit here?

 




طبقه بندی: grammar،
[ شنبه 1 بهمن 1390 ] [ 12:20 ب.ظ ] [ Ghasem Kouchaki ]
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